HIV in Children


Dr. Ira Shah
Last Updated : 1st September 2012

Common bacterial infections

seen are

Common organisms


  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Hemophilus influenza type
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Escherichia Coli
  • Pneumococcus

Others Gram negative bacteria such as pseudomona aeruginosa, salmonella and E. Coli.

Clinical features

Depends upon the site of infection. HIV infected children with bacterial infections usually have a similar clinical presentation as those without HIV infection. However, the severity of the disease may be more and response to standard duration of antibiotics may be poor.


The methods of diagnosis essentially remain the same as that of an uninfected child. Isolation of organism by culture is essential.


Treatment should be as per the local epidemiologic prevalent strain and sensitivity pattern. If an organism is isolated, then antibiotic susceptibility testing should be performed and therapy based on sensitivity pattern. Longer duration of therapy may be required to cure the infection.

Infection Empiric recommended drugs
Meningitis or
Pneumonia or
Third generation cephalosporin such as ceftriaxone (80-100 mg/kg/day) in 1-2 divided doses (max dose = 4 gm)
OR cefotaxime (150-200 mg/kg/day) in 3 to 4 divided doses (max dose - 8-10 gm) OR Cefuroxime (100-150 mg/kg/day) in 3 divided doses (max - 4-6 gm).
Staphylococcus aureus
(methicillin resistant)
Vancomycin (40-60 mg/kg/day) in 4 divided doses (max adult dose = 2-4 gm)

Dr. Ira Shah
Incharge Pediatric HIV and TB Clinic, B.J.Wadia Hospital for Children, Mumbai, India Consultant in Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Nanavati Hospital, Mumbai, India.
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